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Classification of Computers. i. Classification of Computers by Size a) Micro-Computers • Micro –Computers are the Smallest class of Computers• Micro- Computers have one micro-processor in its Central Processing Unit• Micro-Processor refers to Central Data…
Researchers in the science of “Artificial Intelligence” has investigated many areas of the mind such as pattern matching, vision, and theorem proving. However, all of these are only parts of the human mind. An intelligent system could include all of these parts, but it still would not be complete, and could not function, unless it also had sensed, a method to choose responses according to its objectives and memories, and some way of performing these responses in and on its environment.
i. The Intelligent System has a temporary objective, that it has derived from its main objective. ii. It senses its environment, although we have to realize that it has only a few senses and that these can only capture, for instance, light and sound of an object, but can not capture or know the object itself. iii. The system then stores these sense impressions as elementary concepts. Concepts are a material way of storing information. Working on concepts creates new ones and stores relationships to other total, part, abstract and concrete concepts. Of course, there is a difference between an object or occurrence in the environment, the concept the system uses for its internal processing, and the word it uses to communicate the concept. To continue with the internal processes, in more intelligent systems there should now be a check of the incoming information.
Intelligent systems A system is a small part of the universe that we are interested in. It may be natural like the weather or man-made like an automobile; it may be an object like a machine or abstract like a system for electing political leaders. The surroundings are everything else that interacts with the system. The system may sometimes be further subdivided into subsystems that also interact with each other. This division into subsystems is not necessarily unique. In this study, we are mostly interested in mechanical devices that we design for some specific purpose. This by itself helps us define what the system to be considered is.
Software Test Metrics and Measurements In software projects, it is most important to measure the quality, cost and effectiveness of the project and the processes. Without measuring these, project can’t be completed successfully. This uses Software Test Metrics and Measurements to measure.
The Computer Misuse Act is designed to protect computer users against willful attacks and theft of information. Offences under the act include hacking, unauthorized access to computer systems and purposefully spreading malicious and damaging software (malware), such as viruses. The act makes it an offence to access or even attempt to access a computer system without the appropriate authorization. Therefore, even if a hacker tries to get into a system but is unsuccessful they can be prosecuted using this law. The act also outlaws “hacking” software, such as packet sniffers, that can be used to break into or discover ways to get into systems.
Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides Internet connections and services to individuals and organizations. In addition to providing access to the Internet, Internet service providers may also provide software packages (such as browsers), e-mail accounts, and a personal Web site or home page. Internet service providers can host Web sites for businesses and can build the Web sites themselves. Internet service providers are all connected to each other through network access points, public network facilities on the Internet backbone.
License Agreements in Computer Science. When customers buy software, they buy a copy and the right to use it in certain ways In certain ways means: there are different types of restrictions in place Single user license: allows the use of one copy on one machine for one user Example: computer game
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Functions of Computer Science Professional Bodies Establish a code of conduct to which members of the profession must abide. Establish mechanisms for the dissemination of knowledge & good practice to members Set standards of education (for example degree accreditation)
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Help develop an organizational environment favorable to acting ethically. Promote public knowledge of software engineering. Extend software engineering knowledge by appropriate participation in professional organizations, meetings and publications. Support, as members of a profession, other software engineers striving to follow this Code.
Characteristics of a IT/Computer Science profession Great responsibility Professionals deal in matters of vital importance to their clients and are therefore entrusted with grave responsibilities and obligations. Given these inherent obligations, professional work typically involves circumstances where carelessness, inadequate skill, or breach of ethics would be significantly damaging to the client and/or his fortunes.
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Outsourcing is a contractual arrangement under which a client hands over a certain business function to a supplier This usually includes planning, management, and operation of this function Very common in some situations: few people generate their own electricity or drill their own wells Logic is that a company specializing in a particular area, e.g. catering or office cleaning, is probably better at it
A contract is simply an agreement between two or more persons. Essentials of a contract: a) Offer and Acceptance. In order to create a valid contract, there must be a ‘lawful offer’ by one party and ‘lawful acceptance’ of the same by the other party.
Extreme programming methodology was created as a reaction to the old waterfall methodology. The reason is that software development is a very fluid process because requirements may not be fully implemented from the beginning but will always change as project progress there4 soft dev needs a methodology that can adapt changing requirement at any point during the project lifecycle.