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A trade mark is a mark that has been registered with the aim of distinguishing, in the course of trade, the services or products of a person from the services or products of his/her competitors. A trade mark gives its owner the exclusive right to exclude competitors’ use of the mark with reference to identical or even similar products or services. In addition to ordinary trademarks, collective trademarks and certification trademarks also exist. If a mark has not been registered, an action for unlawful competition may still be useful regarding unauthorized competitive use of the mark, provided that the mark has a reputation.