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The common rose coco beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are the most commonly grown grain legumes that come second after maize as a subsistence crop. They serve as a source of protein which is relatively cheaper compared to animal proteins to the majority of the population in Kenya. Consumption of common bean is high mostly because it is relatively inexpensive compared to meat. Common bean plays a strategic role in alleviating malnutrition. Regular consumption of common bean is now promoted by health organizations because it reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes or coronary heart diseases. This is because common bean is low in fat and is cholesterol free. It is also an appetite suppressant because it digests slowly and causes a low sustained increase in blood sugar. Rose coco provides a rich combination of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. In fact, with increasing health concerns, most people, especially the urban population are reducing consumption of animal proteins, and instead they are turning to pulses such as dry bean due to its low-fat content. Hence the rationale for emphasis in more bean research is self-evident. The crop also provides farm households and traders with incomes and is therefore important from both the food security and income generation. Hence there is a need for increased bean production to enhance exports as well as satisfies domestic market. It is an important staple food in the diet of people of all income categories. The beans are characterized as near perfect food because of their high protein content and generous amounts of iron, folic acid, complex carbohydrates and other diet essentials. The crop also matures within three months, enabling farmers to plant the crop almost three times annually. Therefore, we need to see this important crop doing well, so as to feed and supplement the right nutrients to its ever-growing consumers.

This bean is the most preferred variety by consumers in Kenya. Kenyans consume more and more beans to meet to meet their protein dietary requirements. This has led to an increasing movement of farming population into the cities means increased demand for beans; however, what is not likely to occur is a sharp price increase

1.0.1                    Diagram of Rose Coco beans

Chapter Two


Grain legumes, such as common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), are widely available in many parts of the world. These legumes play an important role as protein sources in both human and animal nutrition.

            Rose coco in animal feeds industry.

Soybean meal and animal proteins such as fish meal, and meat and bone meal are the commonly used sources of dietary protein in poultry feed formulations around the world. In recent years, however, availability and the increasing cost of these ingredients are becoming serious threats to the continued expansion of the poultry industry. As a result, it has become necessary to evaluate alternative protein sources which can fully or partially substitute the conventional protein sources in poultry feed formulation. Grain legumes, such as common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), are widely available in many parts of the world. These legumes play an important role as protein sources in both human and animal nutrition. However, their use in the poultry feed industry remains limited because of the uncertainty over their nutritional value and the presence of anti-nutritive factors which interfere with nutrient utilization resulting in poor animal performance. Special processing techniques such as heating or oil extraction have to be employed to reduce the ANF’s and maximize nutritional value to monogastric. Ruminants with the help of microbes in the rumen can utilize raw legumes effectively without processing

2.1 Importance of rose coco beans as possible food stuff

The income-generating aspect of bean production is becoming more significant principally near urban markets, where populations increasingly rely on beans as an inexpensive source of protein. Increased demand from feed manufacturers would further strengthen the commercialization aspect of common means and further contribute directly to women development and economic empowerment as most of the beans are produced by rural women. There are some limitations to the use of dry beans and research is finding ways to overcome them.

Rose coco is among the variety of common beans (phaseolus vulgaris) and is considered among one of the most important legumes world, which is a source of nutrients to many people. It is a staple food crop in Kenya, which rates second after maize. The presence of high levels of soluble fibers makes them beneficial in reducing cholesterol and blood sugar levels in humans. Loaded with nutrients, they are used in various cuisines and are a key ingredient served cold in salads or hot in delicious curries.

 The crop is grown in almost all regions in Kenya with very minimum care and adds Nitrogen to the soil. Rosecoco are vegan friendly , and naturally glutter and dairy free.

2.2 Nutritive Content of Rose Coco

Parameters Per %
Moisture Content 14%
Fat Content 3%
Ash Content 9.56%
Crude Fiber 12.5%
Protein Content 11%

2.3Benefits of Rose coco in Human and Animal diets

  1. Protein Source- Protein is a vital nutrient that plays a key role in virtually everything the body does.
  2. Nutrient Dense food- They contain several vital nutrients including folate which prevents neural tube defects in fetus during pregnancy.
  3. Antioxidant- Rose coco are rich in a type of oxidant called polyphenols. Antioxidants fight the effects of free radicals, which are chemicals that affects a wide range of processes in the body, from physical aging to cancer and inflammation.
  4. Better Heart Health –People who consume beans may be less likely to die of heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular health problem.
  5. Reduced risk of cancer- beans acts as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory. These effects reduce the risk of cancer
  6. Diabetes and glucose metabolism- rose coco bean may help stabilizes blood glucose levels or even prevent diabetes. They are high in fiber, which can help lower blood glucose.
  7. Preventing fatty liver- There is a suggestion that beans might preserve liver health and reduce the risk of fatty liver.
  8. Controlling appetite-The fiber and healthy starches in rose coco beans can help prevent food cravings. People may feel fuller after consuming it, which may prevent overeating and even with weight loss.

2.4 Effects of processing on nutritive content of rose coco beans

The long preparation time can be inconvenient and expend much fuel. Anti-nutritive factors such as protease inhibitors and lectins can block the digestion process. Factors promoting flatulence are another undesirable effect. There is genetic variability for most of these factors. The effects of anti-nutritive factors are mainly reduced through mechanical treatments, water treatment, and heating. Enzymes, probiotics, fermentation and methionine supplementation are also being recommended as capable of removing/reducing the effects of anti-nutritive factors.

Cooking profile for rose coco revealed that under the accelerated conditions of storage, cooking time increases with storage time. Most of the anti-nutritive components present in legumes are removed during classical cooking treatments.  The pre-processing treatment of Na2Co3 shortened the cooking time significantly. Soaking pre-treatments for rose coco beans not only reduces the cooking time but also reduces the anti nutrients content

2.5 Effects of feeding rose coco beans to broilers

  1. Feeding rose coco greatly increases the growth rate of broilers at weaning. Rose coco is offered as the sole protein and supplemented with methionine or tryptophan on the growth performance, digestibility and their effects on the pancreas, liver and kidney.
  2. When fed in excess amount, rose coco beans may cause bloat.
  3. Good fed broilers chicken have low mortality rate when fed with grounded roasted rose coco
  4. Fertility rate increases due to high amount of protein content.


3.1 laboratories Evaluation of Rose coco bean (Phaseolus Vulagris).

Rose coco beans were purchased from the local markets. If was roasted into powdery form and therefore taken to the laboratory for chemical analysis.

The following parameters were analyzed

  1. Moisture Content
  2. Ash Content
  3. Fat Content
  4. Crude Fiber
  5. Protein Content
  6. Carbohydrate Content

Proximate analysis of phaseolus Vulgaris (Rose coco) as per method described by AOAC (2004)

3.1.1 Determination of moisture content

  1. Weight of empty crucible with cover (previously dried at 100 0C for 1 hour)
  2. Place 3g of sample on crucible
  3. Place the crucible in air oven and dry at temperature of 105 0C for 24 hours.
  4. Remove the crucibles from the oven after drying and cool in a desiccators
  5. Weigh the sample covered with glass
  6. Place the crucibles again in the oven and dry for 30 minutes, take out from the dryer cool in desiccators and weigh. Repeat consecutively until constant weight attained.

Moisture content is calculated by applying following equations:

Moisture Content = A-B     x  100


                        Where             A= Initial weight of crucible and sample

                                                B= Final Weight of Crucible and Sample

                                                W= Weight of Sample

            3.1.2 Determination of Ash Content using the adopting AOAC (2004) METHOD Apparatus

            Apparatus / materials

  • Crucibles
  • Electric Balance
  • Electric Oven
  • Polythene Paper


  1. Weigh a clean and dried empty crucible
  2. Weigh 3g of the sample (Roasted rose coco) the polythene paper and pour on the crucible.
  3. Keep the crucible in an electrical oven at a temperature of 105 0C for 24 hours
  4. After drying, transfer the crucible to the mottle furnace and ignite at 600 0C for 5hours.
  5. After burning remove the crucible and cool in desiccators and weigh the crucible.

Ash content of the sample was calculated by applying the following equations:

 Ash Content= A-B    x 100


Where       A = Final Weight of Crucible and Sample

                 B= Weight of Empty crucibles

                 W= Weight of Sample

3.1.3 Determination of Fat Content


  • Soxhlets Apparatus
  • Thimble
  • Cotton
  • Funnel
  • Conical Flask
  • Petroleum Ether
  • Dry Beaker


  1. Fat will be estimated by dissolving the fat of the sample in organic solvent using Soxhlet apparatus followed by evaporation of solvent to obtain fats.
  2. The dried waged (3g) sample (rose coco) was transferred to a thimble and plugged the top of the thimble with a wad of fat free cotton.
  3. Thimble was dropped into the extract ion tube attached to a soxhlet flask. Approximately 75ml or more of petroleum ether was poured into the flask the top of the fat extraction tube was attached to the condenser. The sample was extracted for 16 hours on a water bath at 30 0C – 400C
  4. At the end of extraction period, the thimble was removed from the apparatus and most of the ether was collected.
  5. The ether was poured off when the tube was nearly full, when the ether reached a small volume it was poured into small, dry beaker (previously weighed) thoroughly using ether. the ether was evaporated on steam bath at low heat, it was then dried at 100 0C for 1 hour cooled and weighed

The difference in the weights gave the ether soluble material present in the sample. The percentage of crude fat of the samples was calculated by the following equations;

Percentage Crude Fat   = Weight of Soluble Material      X 100

                                               Weight of Sample

3.1.4 Determination of Crude Fibre

Crude fibre content was determined using AOAC (2004) Method and the percentage content obtained from the experiment was calculated by the following formula:

Percentage Crude Fibre    =     loss of weight     X 100

                                           Weight of Sample

3.1.5 Determination of Protein content


  1. Kjelddahl Digestion flask
  2. Sulphiric Acid


  1. Take 2g of sample ( Rose coco roasted) and 3 g of digestion mixture and 25 ml of sulphiric acid in a kjeldahl digestion and digestion apparatus.
  2. If the colored the substance is pale yellow then the digestion is complete.
  3. Following the distillation the ammonia collected was titrated with 0.1 n HCL Solution and titre value was recorded. The percentage of protein content in the sample was computed using protein factor 5.7 as follows:

Percentage Nitrogen= (TS-TB) normality of acid X meg. of N2       X    100

                                            Weight of Sample

Where TS= Titre value of the sample (ml)

            TB= Titre value of the bank (ml)

Meg of N2 =0.014

Percentage protein = percentage Nitrogen 5.7


3.1.6 Determination of Total Carbohydrate Content

Total carbohydrate content of sample were calculated by subtracting the value of moisture ash, protein and fat from 100 (FAO, 2004) as follows:

Percentage Carbohydrate =100 – (Percentage Moisture + Percentage Ash + Percentage Ash + Percentage Protein + Percentage Fiber + Percentage Fat)



The following results were obtained after the laboratory evaluation of the sample proximate composition of rose coco.

  1. Moisture Content

A = Initial Weight of Crucible and Sample

B = Final Weight of Crucible and Sample

W =Weight of Sample


Weight of 1 2 3
Empty Crucible 69.3355 70.1862 673267
Crucible + Sample 69.3355 70.1862 673267
Final Weight 69.3355 70.4762  

A –   B    X 100


Crucible 1

            =          69.3355   – 69.3355   X 100


=          0.3 X 100                    =   30        = 10

                               3                                 3

=   10 %

Crucible 2

            =          70.4762    – 70. 1862   X 100     = 29              =9.67%

                                    3                                     3

Crucible 3

=          67.6567    – 67.3267   X 100     = 33               =11%

                                    3                                     3

Average Moisture Content

10 + 9.67 + 11             =    30.67         = 10.22%

          11                                3

  • Ash Content 

Crucible 1

                                    69.6355 – 69.3355      X 100  =    30                          = 10.22%

                                                11                                       3

Crucible 2

70.4762 – 70.1862     X 100   =     29                                                   =9.67%

                3                                3                         

Crucible 3

70.4762 – 70.1862     X 100   =     29             =9.67%

                                                                  3                                3                       

Ash Content Average      10 + 9.67 + 9                       = 28.67                        = 9.56 %

                                                     3                                    3

  • Determination of fat content

Percentage crude fat =     weight of soluble    x   100

                                      Weight of Sample

Weight of Soluble material = 0.09 g

Weight of sample (Rose coco) = 3g

0.09   x   100   =   9    = 3 %

   3                     3

Fat Content = 3%

  • Determination of Protein content

Per% Nitrogen = (TS   – TB) Normality of acid x Meg, N2   X 100

                                      Weight of Sample

(27.7   x 0.1 x 0.14)   x 100  


0.03878 X 100    = 3.879

            2                  2

1.939%    x 5.7

Protein Content = 11.0528 %


When rose coco are stored for certain period of time the following result are obtained

Storage period

4.1.0 Ash content

There was no sufficient variety in ash content after storage .however the trend show gradual reduction in ash content with increased storage time.

4.1.1 moisture content

There was significant (P < 0.05) variation in moisture content with increase in storage time.

N/B. generally the nutritive content of rose coco has no significant variation with the period of storage.

4.1.2 Processing

Many efforts have been made to define the processing condition which eliminate or at least strongly reduce ANF –activity in legume seeds.

Heat processing is an effective method for decreasing the activity of protease inhibitors and lectins this denatures proteinaceous inhibitors. Most of the anti-nutritive components present in legumes are removed during classical cooking treatments  

Dry rose coco (phaseolus vulgaris) contains a variety of constituents which can interfere with appetite, absorption and metabolism.

Unprocessed rose coco greatly reduces the nutritional value in feeding monogastric animals.

4.1.3 Soil

Soil with high nutrients provide rose coco beans with a lot of nutrients

Rose coco has variation in nutritive content depending on the type of soil planted.


This study show that rose coco (p.coccineus) seeds have high protein and energy contents with nutritionally valuable to both human and animals compared to known protein-rich plant food, such as groundnut and soya beans.

Most of the anti-nutritive components present in legumes are removed during classical cooking treatments. The differences in processing methods such as (roasting, sprouting, boiling and cooking) changed the nutrient content of the seeders. since beans seeds for human consumption will be processed before use.


A recommended method is to boil the beans for at least ten minutes. Choice of the method to use however depends on availability of facilities and the economic considerations. Since rose coco bean seeds for human consumption will be processed before use, a more elaborate study to optimize the processing methods of p.coccineus seeds is required before an appropriate processing method can be recommended for this important food crop.


1.P.M. Kimani; Bean research activities in KARI Kakamega

2. FAUSSTAT.FAOSTAT crop statistics. Available online .http://faostat.fao org/site/567/17(accessed on 5march 2018)

3.  Brigide, p;canniatt-brazaca, s.g;silva, m.o nutritional characteristics of phaseoulus coccineus. food sci .Techno.2014,34,493-500

4. Grela ,E.R  ;Samolinska ,W,Kiczorowska ,B ,Klebaniuk ,acids and correlation  with phytochemical compounds and antibioxidant at biol.trace elem .res.2017 ,180,338-348

5. FIKRU et all.adv vet .res, 2(2):146-152, 2015.

6. FAOSTAT (2015), Food and Agricultural Organization at

7. United State Department of Agriculture, Health And Human Services .dietary guidelines for Americans.

7th ed. Washington DE: U.S. government printing office (2016).

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